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A radio-continuum and photoionization-model study of the two planetary nebulae in the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy
G. Dudziak 1,
D. Péquignot 2,
A.A. Zijlstra 3 and
J.R. Walsh 4
Received 24 February 2000 / Accepted 29 August 2000
Radio continuum observations at 1.4, 4.8 and 8.6 GHz of the two Planetary Nebulae (PNe) in the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy reveal the elongated shape of Wray 16-423 and the extreme compactness of He 2-436. It is confirmed that He 2-436 is subject to local dust extinction.
Photoionization models for both PNe are obtained from two different codes, allowing theoretical uncertainties to be assessed. Wray 16-423, excited by a star of effective temperature 1.07 K, is an ellipsoidal, matter-bounded nebula, except for a denser sector of solid angle 15. He 2-436, excited by a 7 K star, includes two radiation-bounded shells, with the very dense, low-mass, incomplete, inner shell possibly corresponding to a transitory event. The continuum jump at the He+ limit (22.8 nm) agrees with NLTE model stellar atmospheres, despite the Wolf-Rayet nature of the stars. Both stars are on the same (H-burning) evolutionary track of initial mass (1.20.1) and may be twins, with the PN ejection of Wray 16-423 having occured 1500 years before He 2-436.
The PN abundances re-inforce the common origin of the parent stars, indicating almost identical depletions with respect to solar for O, Ne, Mg, S, Cl, Ar, and K (-0.550.07 dex), and strong overabundances for carbon, particularly in He 2-436. He lines consistently point to large identical overabundances for helium in both PNe. An excess nitrogen makes Wray 16-423 nearly a Type I PN.
These PNe provide a means to calibrate both metallicity and age of the stellar population of Sagittarius. They confirm that the youngest, most metal-rich population has an age of 5 Gyr and a metallicity of [Fe/H], in agreement with the slope of the red giant branch.
Key words: stars: AGB and post-AGB ISM: planetary nebulae: general ISM: planetary nebulae: individual: He 2-436, Wray 16-423 galaxies: dwarf galaxies: individual: Sagittarius
Send offprint requests to: D. Péquignot
Online publication: December 11, 2000