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Astron. Astrophys. 321, 207-212 (1997)

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The formation of black-holes in low-mass X-ray binaries

Simon F. Portegies Zwart 1, Frank Verbunt 1 and Ene Ergma 2

1 Astronomical Institute, Utrecht, Postbus 80000, 3508 TA Utrecht, The Netherlands
2 Tartu University, Physics Department, Ülikooli 18, EE2400 Tartu, Estonia

Received 24 April 1996 / Accepted 12 September 1996


We calculate the formation rates of low-mass X-ray binaries with a black hole. Both a semi-analytic and a more detailed model predict formation rates two orders of magnitude lower than derived from the observations. Solution of this conundrum requires either that stars with masses less than 20  [FORMULA] can evolve into a black hole, or that stellar wind from a member of a binary is accompanied by a much larger loss of angular momentum than hitherto assumed.

Key words: binaries: close – stars: evolution – stars: neutron – X-rays: stars

Send offprint requests to: Simon Portegies Zwart

© European Southern Observatory (ESO) 1997

Online publication: June 30, 1998