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Astron. Astrophys. 334, 239-246 (1998)

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Complete models for the PN system: star, wind and nebula

S.A. Zhekov 1 and M. Perinotto 2

1 Space Research Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Moskovska Str. 6, Sofia 1000, Bulgaria (szhekov@bgearn.acad.bg)
2 Dipartimento di Astronomia e Scienza dello Spazio, Universita di Firenze L.go E.Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze, Italy (mperinotto@arcetri.astro.it)

Received 14 August 1997 / Accepted 9 January 1998


We analyze the hot-bubble properties in planetary nebulae in the frame of a so called 'general' PNe picture which attempts to describe the characteristics of the planetary nebulae and their central stars in a unified manner. That is by making use of the evolutionary tracks for the central stars, the radiation driven winds theory and the interaction stellar winds model. The properties of NGC  6543 and NGC  6826 are considered in the frame of this general PNe picture. This includes specific prediction of their X-rays, EUV and infrared coronal-line radiations. In NGC  6543 we reach a satisfactory 'global' representation of the characteristics both of the nebula and of the central star, for a distance of 1.4 kpc. The calculated X-ray emission from the hot bubble of NGC  6543 agrees well with the observations by ROSAT. NGC  6826 has instead not been detected by ROSAT and future X-ray observations are needed for a better confrontation with the theory. A distance of 2.1 kpc is suitable for having a 'general' PNe picture for this object. Indication are found that the so-called super-wind is at least one order of magnitude smaller than the often quoted value of [FORMULA]   [FORMULA]  yr-1.

Key words: planetary nebulae: general – planetary nebulae: individual: NGC 6543, NGC 6826 – X-rays: ISM – infrared: ISM: lines and bands

Send offprint requests to: M. Perinotto

© European Southern Observatory (ESO) 1998

Online publication: May 12, 1998