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Multiperiodicity in semiregular variables
I. General properties
L.L. Kiss 1,
K. Szatmáry 1,
R.R. CadmusJr. 2 and
J.A. Mattei 3
Received 7 December 1998 / Accepted 8 April 1999
We present a detailed period analysis for 93 red semiregular variables by means of Fourier and wavelet analyses of long-term visual observations carried out by amateur astronomers. The results of this analysis yield insights into the mode structure of semiregular variables and help to clarify the relationship between them and Mira variables.
After collecting all available data from various international databases (AFOEV, VSOLJ, HAA/VSS and AAVSO) we test the accuracy and reliability of data. We compare the averaged and noise-filtered visual light curves with simultaneous photoelectric V-measurements, the effect of the length versus the relatively low signal-to-noise ratio is illustrated by period analysis of artificial data, while binning effects are tested by comparing results of frequency analyses of the unbinned and averaged light curves.
The overwhelming majority of the stars studied show multiperiodic behaviour. We found two significant periods in 44 variables, while there are definite signs of three periods in 12 stars. 29 stars turned out to be monoperiodic with small instabilities in the period. Since this study deals with the general trends, we wanted to find only the most dominant periods.
The distribution of periods and period ratios is examined through the use of the and plots. Three significant and two less obvious sequences are present which could be explained as the direct consequence of different pulsational modes. This hypothesis is supported by the results for multiperiodic variables with three periods. Finally, these space methods are illustrated by several interesting case studies that show the best examples of different special phenomena such as long-term amplitude modulation, amplitude decrease and mode switching.
Key words: stars: oscillations stars: AGB and post-AGB stars: variables: ffi Sct
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Online publication: May 21, 1999