The origin of cosmic rays (Hess 1912, Kohlhörster 1913) is still one of the main enigmas of physics. Many energetic sources have been claimed to explain parts of the population of cosmic ray particles observed. Novae, pulsars, supernova explosions, stellar wind bubbles, interstellar turbulence, radio galaxies and many other sources have been explored (Fermi 1949, 1954; Peters 1959, 1961; Berezinsky et al. 1990).
1.1. The origin of cosmic rays
Recently we have proposed that cosmic rays can be traced to three different source sites:
The theory was originally proposed in Biermann (1993a, paper CR I) and in Rachen & Biermann (1993, paper UHE CR I). Various tests were performed in Biermann & Cassinelli (1993, paper CR II); Biermann & Strom (1993, paper CR III); Stanev et al. (1993, paper CR IV); Rachen & Biermann (1993, paper UHE CR I); Rachen et al. (1993, paper UHE CR II); Nath & Biermann (1993, 1994a, 1994b); Biermann et al. (1995a); Biermann et al. (1995b, paper CR V); Stanev et al. (1995); Biermann et al. (1997) and Biermann (1993b, c, 1994, 1995a, b, 1996, 1997a, 1997b).
In this paper we will at first briefly discuss the error determination of the theory in Sect. 2, then the data for individual elements in Sect. 3, compare and discuss secondary elements versus primary elements in Sect. 4, and conclude in Sect. 5.
© European Southern Observatory (ESO) 1998
Online publication: January 8, 1998