Letter to the Editor
What does cluster redshift evolution reveal?
A. Blanchard and
Received 9 December 1997 / Accepted 6 February 1998
Evolution of the cluster population has been recognized as a powerful cosmological tool. While the present-day abundance of X-ray clusters is degenerate in , n and , Oukbir and Blanchard (1992, 1997) have pointed out that the number density evolution of X-ray clusters with redshift can be used to determine . Here, we clarify the origin of this statement by identifying those parameters to which the evolution of cluster number density is most sensitive. We find that the evolution is controlled by only two parameters: the amplitude of fluctuations, , on the scale associated with the mass under consideration, Mpc, and the cosmological background density, . In contrast, evolution is remarkably insensitive to the slope of the power spectrum. We verify that the number density evolution of clusters is a powerful probe of the mean density of the universe, under the condition that is chosen to reproduce current-day abundances. Comparison of the cluster abundance at , from the EMSS, to the present-day abundance, from the ROSAT BCS sample, unambiguously reveals the existence of significant negative evolution. This number evolution, in conjunction with the absence of any negative evolution in the luminosity-temperature relation, provides robust evidence in favor of a critical density universe (), in agreement with the analysis by Sadat et al. (1998).
Key words: cosmology: observations cosmology: theory large scale structure of the Universe galaxies: clusters: general
Send offprint requests to: A. Blanchard
© European Southern Observatory (ESO) 1998
Online publication: March 30, 1998