## Cosmological Malmquist bias in the Hubble diagram at high redshifts
The Malmquist bias in luminosity distances for gaussian standard
candles is discussed within cosmological models where the Euclidean
-law for volumes and -law
for fluxes is not valid. Furthermore, the influence of K-corrections
and luminosity evolution are analyzed. It is noted that the usual way
of comparing theoretical predictions and data points in the Hubble
diagram ( vs. Especially, calculations are made in Friedmann models for standard
candles with different gaussian dispersions
around average absolute magnitude . The usual
vs. It is concluded that the cosmological Malmquist bias is a necessary
part of the theory of gaussian standard candles at high redshifts. It
is also emphasized that one should always consider two complementary
aspects of the Hubble diagram as a cosmological test, i.e. the
vs. For example, with mag, in the case of
bolometric magnitudes, the traditional vs.
We also discuss the bias in angular size distance, which is shown to work in a different sense than the bias in luminosity distance, and the deviation from the classical bias is large already well below the distance maximum in Friedmann models.
This article contains no SIMBAD objects. ## Contents- 1. Introduction
- 2. Basic concepts: distances, redshifts, and co-moving volumes
- 3. Volumes probed by galaxies at
- 4. Calculation of < log
*z*> at- 4.1. Basic formula
- 4.2. Examples
- 5. Including K-effect and other corrections
- 6. Bias in angular size distances
- 7. Notes on non-zero cosmological constant
- 8. Discussion and conclusions
- Acknowledgements
- References
© European Southern Observatory (ESO) 1998 Online publication: October 22, 1998 |